As a total beginner I noticed that sometimes simple sentences end with ます and sometimes with です. What is the difference?
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Another beginner answering here.
ます is a (polite) verb ending. The verb to eat (食べる) for example can be conjugated to 食べます, which can be used in polite speech.
です is a state of being, also to be used in polite conversations and can be roughly translated as a conjugated "to be". Example: 私はドイツ人です (I'm German)
です is the polite form of is/am/are/be. It can also come after adjectives to make a sentence polite. ます is an ending attached to verbs, and functions to make the sentence polite.
This is a cat.
Today is hot.
I eat cake.
Note that in the second example although the translation contains the word is this is contained in the adjective 暑い = "be hot". です does not mean is when it comes after an adjective, it just makes the sentence polite.
In the third example the verb 食べる (dictionary/plain form) becomes 食べます to make it polite.