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I can see リベンジ used often in internal business communication for "2nd attempt" (like リベンジ判定会議 or リベンジ提案). Wikipedia also suggests it bears the meaning of 「再挑戦」の意味でも使われる。

Would it be acceptable to use in an official or semi-official business situation between two companies?

Especially wouldn't it sound rude if the bidder used the リベンジ提案 in front of a customer?

Has it lost 復讐/仕返し meaning completely?

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This page on Weblio is informative, particularly the second explanatory note in the 実用日本語表現辞典 section:

日本語の文脈で「リベンジ」とカナ表記される場合は、スポーツ競技などで敗退・敗北を喫した場面において「再挑戦する」「次回は勝つ」といった(多分に前向きな)意味合いで用いられることが多い。

So the 再挑戦 meaning may sound "sportsy" and informal, which agrees with my limited exposure to this term.

Note that, in other contexts, the 仕返し or 復讐 meanings have apparently not been lost. The first part of that same section says:

報復、復讐、仇討ち、意趣返し、雪辱といった意味をもつ英単語。名詞および動詞(他動詞)として用いられる。基本的に「遺恨」のニュアンスを含む後ろ向きな表現。

And the Daijirin entry says:

仕返しをすること。復讐。雪辱。

My armchair read on this is that it might leave room for misunderstanding, and that you're safer not using the term. That said, depending on the customer and the context of the moment, the 再挑戦 meaning could be very clear. I'll certainly defer to native speakers on this.

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    +1. I would certainly avoid saying リベンジ提案をします in front of my customer. But at the same time, I don't probably feel insulted if someone said to me something like リベンジをしに参りました.
    – naruto
    Apr 8 '16 at 1:20

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