I'm having difficulty understanding these sentences from my textbook.


Could a literal (and rather awkward) translation go something like this:

In this class, are there students who can do the Korean language that Kim can do in addition to (Japanese/English)?

I'm most confused about the "キムさんの他に(も)韓国語" part. Is it treated here as a single noun clause meaning "the Korean, in addition to (Japanese/English) of Kim"

The grammar explanation also gives this example.


I think I understand the 他は part here, but am stuck on "授業に出る." Does it mean leave class? That's what I'd think, but it seems an odd thing to say (unless the speaker is in class now). Could it mean go to class?

  • 3
    出る does not mean "leave" in the context of classes or attendance. 出る means attend.
    – virmaior
    Mar 21 '16 at 2:13

"キムさんの他に(も)韓国語" part. Is it treated here as a single noun clause

No, 「キムさんの他に(も)」 modifies 「いますか」.
「韓国語ができる」 is a relative clause modifying 「学生」.

So you would parse the sentence this way:


And it would literally translate to:

{In this class}, are there {students (who can speak Korean)} {other than Kim-san}?

As for the 出る in your second sentence, it means "to attend" (≂ 出席する), as @virmaior has said in the comment.


The も is categorized as the "binding particle".

Here is the insight by the Japanese into the binding particle も。 ( This is the PDF. )

From the above

「も」について、寺村秀夫1991は「「XモP」の基本的な意味は、XについてPを、P と結びつくものとしてX以外のもの(~X)があるという影と対比しながらいうことであ る。


The binding particle も, Hideo Teramura developed his idea in 1991 も denotes that there is something unspoken that binds the main object X, which also binds with another object P, but not X itself, rather something other than the X.

Also from the link

「XもP」という文は、基本的には、聞き手が、「X」を聞いてすぐ、Xでな いものを連想することができる文脈、または状況があってはじめて成立する文である」と 定義し、また、「も」は「数量、程度についての評価、その多少、高低を強調する意味で 使われる」と指摘している。


The sentence XもP is actually based on the idea that the sentence is basically based on the presumption that the listener soon can imagine there is something other than X. Also, the binding particle も is used to denote the evaluation, quantity, height, degree of something.

So, に the case-marking particle, is "specifying" or "pointing to" in your case, the noun 他.

Let's divide キムさんの他に(も)



So, there is somebody other than Kim san ( who here is assumed to be able to speak Korean ), which is expressed by the Japanese noun 他,and the binding particle も here would be expressing "there should be somebody ( more ) ( or other ) than Kim san," ( who can speak Korean. )

Have a nice day.

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