I've just started Japanese, so please go easy on the grammar!

I see from this website that ~madeni means "by that time," but I'm not sure if you just append that to the time you want to specify (i.e., rokujimadeni). Also, is there a perfect and/or future perfect tense equivalent in Japanese?

  • 1
    I came up with 6時には家に着いている when I just read it.
    – user4092
    Commented Mar 9, 2016 at 4:14

2 Answers 2


~madeni (~までに)

Yes, as you said, it's that simple - append "~までに" to the time you want to specify.

But! Since this is used in future perfect, it's kinda weird to say までに. We say までには (madeniwa.)
には is a combination of case particle に and engagement particle は.
indicates the time the action ends (or starts,) and indicates the topic (or important point) in the sentence.

Perfect / future perfect

There are 3 possible ways to interpret those tenses.

  • Continuation
  • Experience
  • Completion

And of course we have separate translations for those. We use:

  • "~しつづけている" for continuation

    (Ex. He's been sick since yesterday - 彼{かれ}は 昨日{きのう}から 病気{びょうき}で寝{ね}つづけている)

  • "~したことがある" for experience

    (Ex. I've been to Japan in the past - 私{わたし}は 前{まえ}に 日本{にほん}に 行{い}ったことがある

  • "~しまった" or "~したところだ" for completion

    I've arrived home - 私{わたし}は 家{いえ}に ついたところだ

And we use "~だろう" for future patterns, like:

It'll rain soon. もうすぐ 雨{あめ}が 降{ふ}る だろう

However, it's not that simple to combine those, because the translation changes (because it sounds weird)

  • For continuation, say "~したことになるだろう"

    I'll have lived in Japan for 5 years next August - 来年{らいねん}の 8月{がつ}で 私は 日本に 5年間{ねんかん} 住{す}んだ ことになるだろう

  • For experience, say "~したことになるだろう" (same as continuation because I don't think there's much difference in situation - in both usage the subject is still doing the thing.)
  • For completion, say "~しているだろう"
    • Let's take your sentence:

      I'll have arrived home by 6pm - 私{わたし}は 6時{じ}までには 家{いえ}に 帰{かえ}っているだろう

  • 1
    I thought that だろう expressed probability. Why do we need it for the sentence "I'll have lived in Japan for 5 years next August"? Unlike the rain example, that seems to be a certainty, unless you move or die. Commented Mar 8, 2016 at 19:01
  • @user3856370 Yeah, you're right. But that's how I learned in jr. hi- and high school. Maybe だろう is one of an explicit indication to show the original sentence was in future pattern. You know, that entrance exam for screening the students looks for such small (and sometimes weird-sounding) differences. They want to mark you as low they can. So you want to appeal that you understand everything they asked to avoid getting low score. And I think one would get better grade (if any) if they add だろう than forgetting it. Commented Mar 9, 2016 at 0:59
  • だろう is probably used because it is not certain that he will complete those 5 years, it is the probability of the future, i.e. by next Aug (if I probably stay there) ill complete 5 years
    – APK
    Commented Aug 23, 2020 at 16:31

Grammar wise it requires the attachment "hazu desu" (means should be... plus other connotations), the present continuous verb(te form)+iru ... read this page by Maggiesensei for hazu desu.

page for -teiru

She is awesome in my opinion, and her pages are filled with examples as well as incredible explanations!

My translation would probably be of the english sentence "I should be home from 6pm (onwards <-- Implied)". Which has a similar feel.


watashi ha gogo roku-ji kara ie ni modotteiru hazu desu.

gogo just means afternoon, so 18:00 not 06:00. The rest is particles and vocab.

Keep in mind there is no one correct way to say something in language, so this is what I would have strung up. However my grammar may have different connotations so i'd appreciate being pulled up on anything wrong in my understanding!

  • If possible, please try to quote or summarize relevant information from pages that you link. This helps if for some reason people are not able to access the webpages. Commented Mar 8, 2016 at 15:02
  • Ah! i didn't know this ... In future I will. I hope I got all the relevant information across. Thank you. Commented Mar 8, 2016 at 15:05

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