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I've seen many different words refering to back, spine like せ and せなか. So what is the right word and in which case?

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In modern Japanese, せなか is the usual word for "back", but it comes from the old word せ which also means "back", or "a raised portion" and which occurs in other contexts:

See also the entry for 背 at Wiktionary: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E8%83%8C

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