Verb stem (masu-stem) as a noun can have various meanings depending on the original verb, and you may not be able to determine its meaning without referring to a dictionary. I generally recommend you memorize these, and avoid "coining" a new word unless you're really comfortable with Japanese.
- Person who does the action (≒
- 酔っ払い drunkard
- のぞき peeper
- ヴァイオリン弾き violinist
- The action itself (≒
- 走り run
- 支払い payment
- 祈り prayer
- Tool/device to do the action (≒
- つまみ knob, tab
- はかり (weight) scale
- 引き出し drawer
- Something resulting from the action, something associated with the action.
- のぼり uphill (slope)
- のぼり (storefront) banner
- たたき tataki
- 握り nigiri (sushi)
- 吹き出し balloon (in manga)
Some nouns in this form can have more than one meaning depending on the context. For example, "殺し" can mean "murderer", "killer (weapon)", "killing (move)" or "murder case".
A few masu-stems are preceded by お and have fixed meanings.
- お握り (onigiri) vs 握り (nigiri (sushi))
- お絞り (wet towel supplied at restaurants) vs 絞り (iris (camera))
- お使い (errand) vs 使い (messenger, envoy)
masu-stem + もの generally means "thing to [verb]", but again, lots of nouns in this form have derivative meanings which are difficult to guess, so you need to memorize.
- 出しもの event, attraction
- 入れもの container, box
- 買いもの shopping
- 売りもの goods for sale
- 着物 kimono
- 吸いもの suimono
- 見もの something worth seeing, spectacle
- 引き出物 wedding favor
- 吹き出物 pimple
Don't try to create a new one; for example 走りもの and 聞きもの would mean nothing.
A few words have both
masu-stem + もの forms, and there is usually a drastic difference between the two:
- 書き (writing skill) vs 書きもの (writing job/task/material)
- 巻き (curl, hurry) vs 巻きもの (scroll (of paper))
- 飲み (drinking party) vs 飲みもの (beverage)
- 笑い (laughter) vs 笑いもの (laughingstock)
- 生き (liveliness) vs 生きもの (living things, animal)
- 考え (idea, thoughts) vs 考えもの (thing worth rethinking, problem)
- 乗り (vibe, groove) vs 乗りもの (vehicle)