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薬指 ("medicine finger", ring finger) is interestingly similar to the Latin term for ring finger, "digitus medicinalis". Are they etymologically related?

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Almost certainly not. The likely reason has to do with Buddhist statuary: a particular buddha called Yakushi has his fourth finger bent in many poses.

More about the finger on the Japanese Wikipedia:

https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/薬指

More about this particular Buddha on the English Wikipedia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhaisajyaguru

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