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怒られるタイプの男子に囲まれているただひとりの怒られるタイプの女子。
I'm surrounded by boys who are the "getting scolded" type (but?) I'm the only girl of that sort.

Does ただ mean 'but' in this context? If so, when/how should I use it. How, for example, does it differ from けど?

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When ただ appears directly before a numeral + quantifier pair, like in the phrases ただひとり or ただひとつ, it usually has this meaning:

数量・程度などがきわめて少ないさま。たった。わずかに。「ただ一人だけ生き残る」

(二-③ in 明鏡国語辞典)

I think it corresponds to the word 'only' in your translation, as part of ただひとり. I don't think it means 'but' here. There isn't any conjunction in the original Japanese noun phrase – 怒られるタイプの男子に囲まれている is a relative clause modifying (ただひとりの怒られるタイプの)女子.

  • I used 'only' to translate ひとりの. So ただ emphasises the 'singleness'? I hadn't appreciated that the first phrase was modifying 女子. It looked too far away. Thanks. – user3856370 Dec 1 '15 at 21:24
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    It's kind of like 'just one (person)' or 'only one (person)' as opposed to 'one (person)'. – snailboat Dec 1 '15 at 22:08

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