3

In the following sentence

イタリアの理論物理学者フェルミ(Enrico Fermi )は,この現象を,原子核の崩壊を引き起こす力,力を媒介する未知の粒子の存在を仮定することで説明しようとした。

I guess the と followed by a comma means an exhaustive and. But an and of what? I guess of 粒子. Are there grammatical rules to determine this? Or is it just semantics?

5

原子核の崩壊を引き起こす力と,力を媒介する未知の粒子の存在を仮定する

This means:

Assuming the existence of [(原子核の崩壊を引き起こす)力] and [(力を媒介する)未知の粒子]


If there is no comma, it can be read as:

Assuming the existence of [(原子核の崩壊を引き起こす and 力と力を媒介する)未知の粒子]

or

Assuming the existence of 〈[{(原子核の崩壊を引き起こす)力と力}を媒介する]未知の粒子〉

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