For example, in an a situation like



Would the latter sentence be considered past or present tense? Is んだ a combination of の and だ with だ as a copula, or is it a different word altogether that functions more like other sentence ending particles like よ,ぞ,な, etc.


Both is past tense. The former is a question the latter is an answer (he did it).

This topic is similar to this question: のだから vs のだ (んだから vs んだ)

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