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Is there a major difference between ~だろうと and ~でも constructions in nuance? Can ~だろうと only be used with question words? I've seen any volitional followed by と for an effect like ~ても, but usually only with question words. Do the ~だろうと type constructions sound more or less formal?

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Is there a major difference between ~だろうと and ~でも constructions in nuance?

In nuance, no, not really.

If anything, 「~だろうと」 would certainly sound more eloquent than 「~でも」. 「~でも」 could sound kind of blunt or unrefined when used to mean 「~だろうと」.

Can ~だろうと only be used with question words? I've seen any volitional followed by と for an effect like ~ても, but usually only with question words.

No. 「~だろうと」 can directly be preceded by regular nouns as well. Unlike 「~と」 and 「~ても」, however, 「~だろうと」 cannot be preceded directly by verbs for the meaning we are talking about.

An example with no question word used:

「[日本人]{にほんじん}だろうと、[外国人]{がいこくじん}だろうと、[消費税]{しょうひぜい}は[払]{はら}わなければならない。」

= "Whether a Japanese citizen or a foreigner, you must pay the sales tax."

Do the ~だろうと type constructions sound more or less formal?

Not necessarily. The phrase 「~だろうと」, all by itself, does not make the sentence "formal", but it does sound more formal than 「~でも」.

FWIW, we have a 「~であろうと」, which is definitely more formal than 「~だろうと」.

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