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あまり and 過ぎる both indicate an excess of something, so saying あまり食べ過ぎる seems redundant and the equivalent of "eat too too much." However, a sentence like this occurs quite often. Is there actually any difference in meaning compared to simply saying 食べ過ぎる or あまり食べる?

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By using similar words twice, it says the excess is even more excessive. For example,

少しだけなら食べ過ぎても大丈夫だけど、あまり食べ過ぎるとお腹が痛くなるよ。

If you just eat a little too much, that's OK, but if you eat really too much, you'll get a stomachache.

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