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僕は任務を完成しかどうかを確認しまし
I checked if you had finished the mission.

僕は任務を完成すかどうかを確認しまし
I checked if you would finish the mission.


僕は沖縄さんがドーナツを食べかどうかを確認しまし
I checked if 沖縄さん ate donuts.

僕は任務を完成しようとすかどうかを確認しまし
I checked if you were going to finish the mission.

僕は着いかどうかを確認しまし
I checked if you had arrived.

僕は彼が誰と話していかを知らなかっ
I didn't know who he was talking to.

僕は彼が誰と話していかを知らなかっ
I didn't know who he had been talking to.

自分で翻訳しましたけど、大体そんな感じかなと思っています。過去のことを話す場合は、埋め込み表現は主節の動詞の時点を基準にして、
「た」を使ったら、過去の過去
「する」や「しようとする」などだったら、同じ過去の時点のことや過去から見た未来のこと
っていうことですよね?

埋め込み表現のテンスは主節の動詞によって変化するでしょう?(いわゆる相対テンス?)

  • 1
    I'd rather leave this to someone more bilingual than me, but you may try googling "時制の一致" to find more examples. This is the term used when Japanese students learn English grammar at school. – naruto Aug 14 '15 at 1:59
  • 僕は任務を完成するかどうかを確認しました。, to me, does not make sense in Japanese at all. And I have no idea why 僕は任務を完成しようとするかどうかを確認しました。 is translated as I checked if --you-- were going to finish the mission.. Are these a-priori? – Kentaro Dec 13 '15 at 15:20
  • I am sorry I had to downvote. The reason is the "problem" is not about 相関テンス but rather it looks like the questioner does not seem to understand the relationship between the subject of the sub-sentence and and its verb's conjugation form. If I were told, 僕は任務を完成するかどうかを確認しました。, I would perhaps say, So, you are not believing yourself if you are finishing the mission? – Kentaro Dec 13 '15 at 15:29
  • 2
    @Kentaro Tomono: While 僕は任務を完成するかどうかを確認しました contains some errors and unnaturalness, this question is about the tense of a subordinate clause, and these errors are not serious enough to make the question incomprehensible, unless you choose to ignore the question and focus on these errors. It would be helpful to point out errors which are not directly related to what the OP asks, but it is not helpful to complain about them. By the way, it is 相対テンス (相対時制), not 相関テンス, in case you do not know this term. – Tsuyoshi Ito Dec 14 '15 at 15:10
  • I am sorry, as I said above, to repeat like this, personally before he is talking about 相対時制or相対テンス(same(in English the particle has, had not a tense? ex -- He told me he had finished his job. -- )), I smelled like he is not understanding the Japanese grammar correctly prior to asking about the 相対時制. – Kentaro Dec 14 '15 at 16:04
2
+50
  • 過去のことを話す場合は、埋め込み表現は主節の動詞の時点を基準にして、

「た」を使ったら、過去の過去

「する」や「しようとする」などだったら、同じ過去の時点のことや過去から見た未来のこと っていうことですよね?

そうです。

  • 埋め込み表現のテンスは主節の動詞によって変化するでしょう?(いわゆる相対テンス?)

そうです。

-「相対テンス(Relative Tense)」-> The time of main sentence

-「絶対テンス(Absolute Tense)」-> The time of speech

埋め込み表現のテンスは、主節(main clause)/主文{しゅぶん}(main sentence)の出来事が起こった時点(at the time of the event of the main sentence)を基準にするので、「相対テンス」です。

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