From reading a bunch, I've been under the vague impression that [adverb]+なる can be interpreted both progressively and resultatively; according to this chat log, since it can take time, it is a durative verb, not punctual. But I'm not sure.

Some examples that are confusing me:

② 医者になっている。
③ この部隊はXの指揮下になっている。

Perhaps, the verb なる in ② and ③ is punctual, while it's durative in ①.

Could someone answer if 暗くなっている can have a resultative interpretation?




② 医者になっている。
③ この部隊はXの指揮下になっている。



  • Thanks for the formatting edit and TL(!), I'll try and adopt the markup usage in the future.
    – Rimilel
    Aug 5 '15 at 22:45
  • Relevant (see answers): japanese.stackexchange.com/a/23335/3360 Verbs do exist that can be punctual or durative depending on context.
    – Rimilel
    Aug 5 '15 at 22:48

Rarely, yes.

なる in your examples are all punctual usage and these なっている represent a resutative aspect.

①(もう)暗くなっている。 (The weather) has become already dark.

② 医者になっている。 (He/She) has become a doctor.

③ この部隊はXの指揮下になっている。This unit is in X's command.

However, durative usage is possible when the subject is plural or collective, because collection of punctual actions that occur gradually can be regarded as a durative action.

e.g. そこかしこで、雰囲気が暗くなっている The atmosphere is getting / has become dark here and there

Perhaps なっていっている is better for "is getting".

  • This is surprising to me... without もう, 暗くなっている seems pretty ambiguous to me. As an example of forcing the continuative reading (as opposed to iterative), 部屋がどんどん暗くなっている seems perfectly valid to me. Aug 6 '15 at 15:02
  • I think I said the same thing as what you say.
    – user4092
    Aug 6 '15 at 16:31
  • Hmm... it seemed like you were saying that the 進行中 reading is not possible, only the 反復 reading. I think the usual 進行中 reading works also (as long as もう isn't in the sentence), doesn't it? Aug 6 '15 at 18:13
  • 1
    Yes, when it has an adverb like ちょうど今 (just now), it's progressive (進行中). When it's modified by もう as well as the example, it's difficult to take it as progressive. When you simply say なっている, the resultative usage is dominant. As long as なる is concerned, 進行 and 反復 are virtually the same, I think.
    – user4092
    Aug 7 '15 at 0:44
  • 1
    No. As far as I know, 結果残存 means that a change once occurs and the result is maintained, while 反復 means that many changes of the same kind occur as time progresses.
    – user4092
    Aug 7 '15 at 8:24

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