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日本語話す
日本語話す

I found that those two sentences can be translated as "I speak Japanese". Is there a difference regarding the particles?

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On the one hand, in this case indicates the direct object. You are talking Japanese.

On the other hand indicates the means by which you accomplish the action. You are talking in Japanese, or talking using Japanese.

Note that both sentences could be extended :

  • 電話で日本語を話す : I talk Japanese on the phone (using the phone).
  • 日本語で起{お}こった事{こと}を話す : I talk in Japanese (about) what happened.
  • 事実{じじつ}を話す : To speak the truth

Note that the second example is not the most natural, you would often use について or に関{かん}して to indicate the topic.

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