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I'm pretty sure that, in daily conversation, "frogs" are called かえる, right? Can someone please confirm this?

I know that "frogs" are also called かわず in this 諺{ことわざ}

井の中の蛙{かわず}

But, by definition, 諺s are archaic. So, in summary, in daily conversation, a frog is exclusively called かえる, right?

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Yes, the everyday word in modern Japanese is カエル. The other word is now basically an archaic synonym appearing in traditional poetry, the proverb you mention, and so forth.

They weren't always treated as synonyms, though; if you'd like to learn more about the history of the two words and the difference in meaning they originally had, you might find this blog entry by Matt Treyvaud interesting.

I'm not sure it makes sense to say 諺 are archaic by definition. I think it makes more sense to say that many contain archaic language.

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In my experience, while 蛙{かえる} is very common, and often written using kana alone, I have never heard 蛙{かわず} in an everyday conversation. I have not found many sources but this answer taken from here seems to sum it up quite well :

「かえる」は日常語として「かわず」は歌語として、言い分けられてきた。

Meaning that indeed, 蛙{かわず} is only used for stylistic purposes nowadays.

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