Taken from an educational book with parallel English literal translation. The original work is Mishima's "Patriotism".


Reiko recalled the faces of the cheerful young officers who were such dear friends of her husband and had often paid social visits to the house.

What I'm having trouble with is the copula:


With that translation, I'd expect the sentence to look like:


Where relationship between 親友 and 顔 is copulative and the sentence becomes

麗子はXを思い浮べた。 Reiko recalled X (the noun phrase that describes the officers).

In other words, I am very confused about the original sentence's grammar and looking for an explanation how it turns into what it was translated into in the educational text.


Parse it as


「良人の親友であり*」「たびたびこの家へも遊びに来た」 and 「元気な」 all modify 「青年将校」.

*であり is the continuative form of である.

-> (良人の親友であり、)(たびたびこの家にも遊びに来た)青年将校
or, (良人の親友で*、)(たびたびこの家にも遊びに来た)青年将校
*であり sounds more literary than で.

(かわいい)女の子 -> (かわいくて)(優しい)女の子
(きれいな)お姉さん -> (きれいで)(優しい)お姉さん
(医者である)父 -> (医者であり、)(教師でもある)父 or (医者で、)(教師でもある)父


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.