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seeing 尿が遠い/尿が近い in some medical documents and sites, what does 遠い and 近い mean in this sense? Does it literally mean the urine is far(ranged)/urine is close (ranged)?

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In this case, 「[近]{ちか}い」 and 「[遠]{とお}い」 express temporal intervals and not spatial distances -- "at shorter intervals" and "at longer intervals", respectively.

「[尿]{にょう}が近い」 means "having the tendency of urinating frequently".

「尿が遠い」 means the opposite of that -- "not having to pee very often".

We also say 「トイレが近い/遠い」 to mean the same thing.

  • Another possible way to understand the 近い・遠い distinction is literally how far away one can be away from the bathroom. This expression is not uncommon in American English: "I couldn't stray too far from the bathroom the other day (because I was sick, had diarrhea, etc.)." – Eiríkr Útlendi Feb 24 '16 at 0:52

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