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Is there any significant difference between ~ないと、~なきゃ、なくちゃ when they mean 'must'?

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~ないと is usually used for rules, social conventions, very important appointments, and is often abbreviated to just ~ないと. (with no explanatory clause following)

運動をしないとね = Undou wo shinai to ne / 'Cause if you don't work out, then... = "gotta work out"

手を洗わないとね = gotta wash your hands. (to me personally it feels more like "yeah because if you don't wash your hands then...")

~なきゃ feels colloquial (and in some cases hurried)

~なくちゃ feels colloquial

~なくてはいけません (roughly: must do this at all costs")

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