I would like to know about these two 収入, 給料 (there may be even others I am not aware of). Can they be interchanged as one pleases, or does it very much depend on the context?
Which is more colloquial, which is more formal?
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As one of the commenters said 給料 means salary, 収入 means income. In terms of remuneration for a job performed at work these are equivalent. Typically people use 給料 to refer to salary (though also 年収 to refer to yearly salary)
収入 can also refer to income (gross) of a company (one certainly wouldn't use 給料 to refer to sales figures)
As someone else pointed out in the comment, this explains the differences: http://kakeibot.doorblog.jp/archives/37164111.html.
Basically, 「収入」is the amount of money you receive from your company before you subtract taxes and health assurance fees. 「給与」(not 「給料」) on the other hand, is that same amount of money that is given to you by the company (as 与 suggests), so only the point of view changes.
「給料」is one part (the basic fixed income) of the total 「給与」, as 「給与」 contains extras and bonuses.