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Is it ok to substitute "知らせる" for "教える"? I do it all the time and it seems to work-out. But, maybe "知らせる" does not even mean "教える" at all? I've never asked. If the meaning is close, then when might it be natural to say "知らせる" in place of "教える"?

"陳べる" seems like a really strange word? I've never heard it used. The kanji looks weird. Even so, sometimes I'll say it when I should say "教える". When is it ok, not ok, to do this substitution?

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    Why 陳べる, not 述べる? – Micky Apr 8 '15 at 4:45
  • @Micky no reason. I just hit the spacebar and 陳 was at the top of the list. – red shoe Apr 8 '15 at 12:11
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    のべる is a common word, but writing 述べる is thousands of times more common than writing 陳べる. – snailcar Apr 8 '15 at 18:57
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I personally think of it this way.

教える although meaning to teach, can be used in place of the English to tell.

For example,

  • 電話番号を教えてください。Please TELL me you phone number.
  • 天体物理学{てんたいぶつりがく}について教えてください。Please TEACH me about Astrophysics

In this instance please TEACH me your phone number would sound somewhat odd (similar to I never want to forget your phone number). However teaching someone about Astrophysics would not seem odd at all.

お知らせする would mean something close to, to inform / notify.

For example,

  • これから明日の会議についてお知らせいたします。 From now, I will inform you about the details of the conference tomorrow. OR From now, I will notify you as to the details of tomorrows conference.
  • 電話番号変更の知らせ。 Notification of change of phone number.

Whilst not explicitly used for this purpose, although probably able to be understood, it would seem a bit odd to substitute 教える with お知らせする in most circumstances. Although this does depend on what exactly you are saying.

  • 10時に連絡先を教えます。I will tell you the contact details at 10 o'clock.
  • 10時に連絡先をお知らせします。I will inform you as to the contact details at 10 o'clock.

After a bit of research, 陳べる does not seem to be in use and has been replaced by 述べる.

述べる means something close to express, state or mention

述べる implies more of giving a statement

  • 意見を述べる to express / state ones opinions (seemingly the most common use of 述べる is when it has 意見 attached to it)
  • 理由を述べる to give / state a reason

In this sense, 教える can't be replaced by 述べる without altering the meaning of the sentence. - 暗号を教えてください。Please tell me the passcode. - 暗号を述べます。To state the passcode.

  • (1) In what situation would anyone say the two sentences starting with 「10時に」? (2) Why 「暗号化」? Do you even know what it means? – l'électeur Apr 9 '15 at 8:05
  • Apologies. I have been writing about encryption all day and accidentally added a 化. It has been changed. As for the 10時, my boss has used both ways before, albeit with 住所 instead of 連絡先. If you feel you want to add some better examples, go ahead and edit them. – The Wandering Coder Apr 10 '15 at 1:21
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I do not think so, when looking at a few definitions:

  • 知らせる : Has a notion of to notify : this is particularly visible when looking at bulletin boards, they have written お知らせ on them. Same thing, when we receive security notifications or such, they are labeled お知らせ.
  • 教える : Has a notion of teaching. Therefore, I would use it when I would like a colleague to tell/teach me about how to use a piece of equipment for example.
  • 陳べる : I have never encountered it, but according to the dictionary it is more declarative.

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