For example explaining to an acquaintance or a stranger something, but I don't know if it's understood or not and would like to ask. In English I would say something like "I'm sorry, was my explanation clear?" to imply that any misunderstanding would be my fault. I doubt this, but would saying 分かりましたか？ carry that same sense? Or would it be impolite?
わかりましたか would be like "did you get it" so avoid it and just ask it in a way where they judge you and not the reverse as you did in English.
Something like 説明に不明点はなかったでしょうか。