Do they mean the same thing when used as a sequence word ("again, a second time") or is there any difference (apart from 二度 also being used to mean "two times")?


Only in negative sentences, 「[二度]{にど}と」, not「二度」, can mean "again".

「マクドナルドへは二度と[行]{い}かない!」= "I'll never go to McDonald's again!"

In affirmative sentences, 「二度」 always means "twice". 「二度と」 cannot be used in affirmative sentences.

「日本に二度行ったことがあります。」= "I have been to Japan twice."

「[再]{ふたた}び」 means "again" in any situation.

「[去年]{きょねん}再び日本に行った。」 means "I went to Japan again last year." This means that you had been to Japan at least once before last year as well.

「去年二度日本に行った。」 is completely different. It means "I went to Japan twice last year."

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