Namely here, a definition of 含む 「三省堂」:

〈五〉 内部{ないぶ}に‐入{い}れておく(つつみもつ). (派)(~)み

My intuition suggests it could stress the class of 'inside things' to make it more abstract (putting inside anything as opposed to restricted physical space), but my intuition has been wrong many, many times before.



I've found two other examples:

持続]: 〈スル〉 長く‐続く(保ち続ける)こと

生える」: 〈下〉 植物が-芽を出す(生長する). ∥ 歯がのびて出る.

Perhaps it's used to illustrate things? E.g. 生える doesn't have to refer to sprouting plants but the concrete analogy makes the meaning so much clearer. I could be totally wrong, however.

Well, turns out I was wrong!

  • 4
    I'm voting to close this question as off-topic because it appears to be about a specific dictionary notation, not the Japanese language.
    – istrasci
    Commented Mar 2, 2015 at 20:43
  • 4
    I'm voting to leave this question open as on-topic, because it appears to be about dictionary notation of a well-known and respected Japanese monolingual dictionary.
    – Earthliŋ
    Commented Mar 2, 2015 at 21:10
  • 5
    My personal opinion is it should be okay to ask about the Japanese found in dictionaries, just as much as we can ask about the Japanese found elsewhere.
    – user1478
    Commented Mar 2, 2015 at 21:11

1 Answer 1


This is simply a notation of the dictionary used. It doesn't say so explicitly on the results page, but the dictionary for the entry you linked is the デイリーコンサイス国語辞典 第三版.

An overview of the notation used by this dictionary can be found here.

Particularly, it says this about the dash: -

類似の表現の記述が連続する場合,‐と( )を組み合わせて, 下に示すように, 記述を合併して示した.

  例 …する‐こと(人) →「…すること」 と 「…する人」 の合併

    …する役(‐の人) →「…する役」 と 「…する役の人」の合併

    (遠くへ)投げる  →「遠くへ投げる」 と 「投げる」  の合併

    …する(‐重い)もの→「…するもの」 と 「…する重いもの」 の合併

Therefore, the entry 内部に‐入れておく(つつみもつ) is a shortcut for both

  • 内部に入れておく
  • 内部につつみもつ

In other words, the dictionary entry defines ふくむ as 内部に入れておく or 内部につつみもつ.


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