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How do you say "Since this thing is broken, I need to buy a new one."?

And, what are the differences between the following:

この物が壊れましたから、新しいのを買わなきゃ。

この物が壊れています、新しいのをかわなきゃ。

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First, I would like to talk about the phrase 「この[物]{もの}」. We rarely, if ever, say it in a natural setting. It is grammatical, but we just do not say it much.

Instead, you would simply say 「これ」 if you are holding the thing in your hand or pointing your finger to it.

You can also use 「この + real name」 as in 「このカメラ」、「このテレビ」, etc.

Your two sentences:

「この物が[壊]{こわ}れましたから、[新]{あたら}しいのを[買]{か}わなきゃ。」

「この物が壊れています、新しいのを買わなきゃ。」

are grammatical but not very natural-sounding if I were to speak strictly.

The only reason for the unnaturalness is your combined use of non-informal phrases (壊れましたから and 壊れています) and very informal phrase 「買わなきゃ」.

Your use of 「新しいの」 is excellent (and very natural).

My suggestion would be to use 「しまう」:

Not so informal: 「これ(or この~~)が壊れてしまったので、新しいのを買わなければなりません。」

Informal: 「これ(or この~~)が壊れちゃったので、新しいのを買わなきゃ。」

In meaning, 「しまった」=「ちゃった」. The latter is more informal/colloquial.

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There is several ways to say that. One is using から as you do in the first sentence.

The first sentence means "Since this thing is broken, I need to buy a new one." while the second means "This thing is broken, I need to buy a new one.".

The only problem that stands out in your sentence is you are mixing formal and popular way of speaking. 壊れました/壊れています is formal. 買わなきゃ is popular.

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