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I am confused on how to distinguish if a verb is stative or dynamic when used in a sentence. For example, 持つ appears to have two definitions, one for a dynamic meaning and one for a stative meaning.

  1. 物の一部分をつかむ
  2. 所有している

How do I tell the difference between the two definitions when used in a sentence? For example,

武器を持った乗っ取り犯たちは乗客をりつ然とさせた。

Is the interpretation "The hijackers who had weapons terrified the passengers" (stative) or "The hijackers who had obtained weapons terrified the passengers" (dynamic)?

5

You should be able to tell from the context nearly 100% of the time. On the rare chance that it is difficult to tell, it would generally be of little importance which way you interpret it. Off hand, I could not think of such an example.

「[武器]{ぶき}を[持]{も}った[乗]{の}っ[取]{と}り[犯]{はん}たちは[乗客]{じょうきゃく}をりつ[然]{ぜん}とさせた。」

In this sentence, the vast majority of Japanese-speakers, myself included, would take the 武器を持った part to mean "holding weapons". That is because it is really irrelevant as to who actually legally owns those weapons that are presently in the hijackers' hands.

  • What about when 持つ is in the negative form? For example, 彼はカードを持たないで外に出ていた。 Would it be "He went outside without taking his card" or "He went outside without the card on him?" – Joe Feb 28 '15 at 7:55
  • That would be "without the card on him". He left it at home; He forgot. To be honest, though, I am not too sure how exactly that is different from "He went outside without taking his card." – l'électeur Feb 28 '15 at 10:32
  • "Taking his card" reflects an action and makes 持つ a dynamic verb, while "without the card on him" reflects a state of being and makes 持つ a stative verb. – Joe Feb 28 '15 at 21:04
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(sorry, not enough reputation to comment)

I agree with l'électeur, you will and most of the time can be interpreted from the context.

If you want to be specific

"He went outside without taking his card" << action caused by him 彼はカードを持たないで外に出ていた。

"He went outside without the card on him" << a condition 彼はカードがない状態で外に出ていた。

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