In English, before clocks were commonplace, the word "clockwise" was obviously not in common use. Instead, the closest alternative to "clockwise" was the now-archaic word "deasil", and its antonym was "widdershins" (or, perhaps, people just used "right" and "left"; see also: What did we say before “clockwise”? on English.SE).
The Japanese word for "clockwise" - 時計回り - also involves clocks. What was the Japanese word for 時計回り before 時計 became commonplace? I see that 右回り is given as a synonym/definition for 時計回り in some dictionaries; is this what was most commonly used in olden times?