Adjectives (and relative clauses for that matter) are always before the noun they modify. I don't know if there are rules for the ordering of adjective groups. Maybe Wikipedia can tell you more.
As for the
I understand nothing at all part:
- Wikipedia can help you on "sentence topic";
- "time" refers to time expressions such as "three hours ago", "yesterday", "in a week" etc.;
- "location" means an expression indicating the place where an action takes place, such as "here", "in a church", "near the riverbank", "underneath a tree" etc.;
- "Subject" is the subject, which is roughly the doer of the action, but there are exceptions, most notably the verb
aru (~to have), where the subject is the topic and what is possesed is the subject;
aru is lit. to exist, so
As for (possessor), (possessed thing) exists is the idea behind it, reminding me of the Latin use of the dative in this case;
- "Indirect object" is a second object some verbs have, e.g. "give", where it is the person you give something; and "direct object" is the "object" in SOV.
- "Verb" is the sentence's verb.
I honestly didn't know place expressions were confined to before the subject; and time expressions as well. I'm rather inclined to think that this is flexible, and the only real rule is that the verb ends the sentence - for which, unfortunately, you can find exceptions in songs.
Also, I don't know whether to include complements of motion (from somewhere, to swhr., through swhr.) in "location" or not.
I will take look in the cited source and see what it says. Or maybe I'll just wait for comments here.
Update: the cited reference states that:
Japanese is flexible in terms of word-order due to use of particles. Sentences, however, generally have the following structure:
Sentence Topic, Time, Location, Subject, Indirect Object, Direct Object, Verb.
Also, it does not appear (most incredibly in my opinion) to have anything about the adjective-noun ordering in a location you'd expect to find it in. I might consider reporting this to the wikibooks community. Somebody definitely should.