(I don't think the question is phrased well: it's really about dictionary abbreviations. Perhaps you can edit it after this answer.)
Remember these are abbreviations, so if you want to read them out helpfully it's:
自五: ji-go, short for jidoushi-godan
他五: ta-go, short for tadoushi-godan
The 五段 means "5-base (verb)", which has all sorts of other names, including "4-base verb"(!), meaning the base vowel changes.
Unfortunately the Official Translation (complete with ribbons, legal certification, and other decoration devoid of significance) is probably "Transitive" and "Intransitive" (although you still have to define in terms of Japanese grammar exactly what you mean by that).
If you take another pair: 貸す and 借りる, 新明解 says they are both 他(動詞), presumably because you both lend and borrow a hammer. So sadly the obvious distinction is missed by the Official terminology.
Incidentally, this distinction really is everywhere: at the moment there's a question on the right of this screen: "Difference between 向け and 向き". 新明解 again:
むく【自五】 so "self-acting" and the vowel changes, thus the noun form is むき
むける【他下一】 so "other-acting" and an "-eru" verb, thus the noun form is むけ