What's the difference between 打ち合わせ and 会議 and ミーティング?
To me it seems that 会議 may be more formal, but I'm not entirely sure.
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打合せ is more generic. When you go abroad to meet your boss, your colleagues or customers, you'd say 打合せ.
I use ミーティング for when I need to discuss a point with someone. If you're a student and discuss with you advisor once a week, that's it.
会議 is defined as "there's a boring speaker, and everyone around is sleeping" :) That's in fact a conference (even a small one with a handful of people).
For a business meeting: 会議
It basically means: "To meet for deliberations"
It's equivalent to the gairaigo: ミーティング (which I don't like much because there's a widely used Japanese term already)
打ち合わせ is used for meetings of people ”with a common interest". Meeting of a club maybe? As the link explains, it has it origins in Gagaku, where musical instruments need to "hit (taiko) as a unit and fit with the music"
From my experience:
We use 打ち合わせ about going to a client's place, when talking internally.
会議 can be internal or external. 会議中 can be used internally or on the phone with clients.
We use ミーティング for regular weekly section meetings where everyone tells what s/he is doing and what problems there are.
It might be specific to my company.