The おいで after the Te-form seems to convey a kind of command. Could you explain the usages of this word, what part of speech is it and how it differs from the other kinds of commands?

  • 1
    Can you provide more context? I just want to make sure it's おいで and not e.g. おいて. おいで means "come", and I guess "Sit then come" is possible, but not very likely.
    – dainichi
    Oct 21 '14 at 0:29
  • @dainichi 「おいで」 is also a 補助動詞 (or acts like one, anyways). See meaning 二② bullet 2 of the 大辞林 entry Oct 21 '14 at 1:12
  • @DariusJahandarie, you're right. Hm... the use of おいで as an imperative without any (even weak) sense of "come" strikes me as outdated, but I won't argue with the dictionary.
    – dainichi
    Oct 21 '14 at 4:42
  • It also behaves like a 補助動詞 in that it can contract―people say 「持っといで」.
    – user1478
    Oct 21 '14 at 6:36

Combination of 連用形 and おいで can have various meanings, depending on the context:

  1. [連用形 + おいで] Casual and mild version of 「連用形 + ていろ」 (stay/keep [verb-ing])
  • 温かい飲み物を作るから、ちょっとそこで座っておいで。 ← 座っていろ。
  • これからお父さんがすることを、よく見ておいで。 ← 見ていろ。
  • 今からここで大事な話をするけれども、お前は黙っておいで。 ← 黙っていろ。
  1. [連用形 + おいで] Casual and mild version of 「連用形 + に行け」 (go and [verb], leave here and [verb])
  • (in a train) あそこの席が空いているのが見えるから、座っておいで。 ← 座りにいけ。
  • あの映画はすごく面白かったよ。ぜひ、見ておいで。 ← 見に行け。
  • もうすぐ忙しくなるから、その前に、お昼ごはんを食べておいで。 ← 食べに行け。
  1. [連用形 + おいで] Casual and mild version of 「連用形 + て来い」 ([verb] before coming, [verb] and come, come with [verb-ing], etc.)
  • うちの家まで来るの? 歩くと遠いから、ゆっくり電車で座っておいで。 ← 座ってこい。(座りながら来い。)
  • 明日の授業は難しいから、あらかじめ教科書を見ておいで。 ← 見て(から)こい。
  • 明日18時から映画を見よう。長い映画だから、あらかじめ夕食は食べておいで。 ← 食べて(から)こい。
  1. [連用形 + おいで] Casual and mild version of 「連用形 + に来い」 (come to [verb], come and [verb]). Friendly invitation.
  • うちの家に50万円するソファーがあるんだ。座りにおいで。 ← 座りに来い。
  • 東京は桜が綺麗だよ。見においで。 ← 見に来い。
  • 今晩うちに、晩ごはんを食べにおいで。 ← 食べに来い。
  1. [連用形 + おいで + だ/です] Another way of making an honorific expression. 「連用形 + ていらっしゃいます」 (is [verb-ing]). This is not a kind of command, but I think it's worth mentioning here. Note that this is a polite expression.
  • 社長が、部屋の奥で座っておいでです。 = お座りになっています/座っていらっしゃいます。
  • 神様は、毎日のあなたの行動を見ておいでです。 = ご覧になっています。

「[座]{すわ}っておいで。」 = "Go and sit there."

You can say this when both you and the listener (a kid or someone close, not someone older or higher than yourself) know there is a place to sit down nearby and that place has already been talked about between the two parties. It is a casual/friendly imperative. = "Why don't you ~~."

おいで here is short for おいでなさい. It is the honorific お + [出]{い}でる. In the 「Verb + て + おいで」 form, 「おいで」 is used just like a subsidiary verb.

See definition 二-➁-㋑ in: https://kotobank.jp/word/%E5%BE%A1%E5%87%BA%E3%81%A7-216568#E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.9E.97.20.E7.AC.AC.E4.B8.89.E7.89.88

  • 'Why don't you' isn't really a casual request. It's appropriate to say to anyone (at least in the UK), unlike おいで.
    – Angelos
    Aug 28 '15 at 13:13

「座っておいで。」 = "Sit there."

There are two 「おいで」s:

  1. 「お出で」means "come and follow" or "come out". An example is 「お嬢さん、お出でなさい。」which means "Girl(s), come out(show up)."

  2. 「お居で」means "stay". Examples are 「あの方は今どちらにお居でですか。」which means "Where is he staying(living)?", and 「客人はまだそちらにおいでですか。」which means "Is the visitor still there?". 「お居で」applies to your case.

  • 2
    According to 大辞林 and also to Martin's 1975 Reference Grammar of Japanese p.838, the same verb お出で is used for all three meanings. I'm not sure お居で is right.
    – user1478
    Oct 21 '14 at 7:55
  • 大辞林's page says「いる」is one of the source of this expression. I don't know why 大辞林 says「いる」instead of「居る」. Oct 21 '14 at 8:57
  • 大辞泉 also says おいで is a kind of imperative of 居る, and google gives many examples of "お居で". And I agree that 座っておいで is more like "stay sitting / stay seated" than "sit down / take a seat". 「ずっとそこに座れ」 is weird to me but 「ずっとそこに座っておいで」 and 「ずっとそこに座っておけ」 are natural. So I can't say お居で is necessarily wrong. Anyway, we should write subsidiary verbs like this in hiragana in modern Japanese.
    – naruto
    Oct 21 '14 at 10:22

Its like "come sit here", like the way you would tell a child or someone lower than you (or a peer if you're just speaking "cute" by using diminutives).

  • Nice parallel. I think one difference is that you need to pick between "come" and "go" in English (e.g., "come dance with my friend John" only works if John is near you or you are going to move towards John, while "go dance with my friend John" only works if John isn't near you), while 〜おいで works for any direction. Oct 21 '14 at 6:19
  • Also, this might just be my idiolect, but I think I'd use "come ~" with anyone I'm familiar with (e.g. "come help me set up this TV"), while I would not use 〜おいで with peers in Japanese. Oct 21 '14 at 6:23
  • @DariusJahandarie Using it with peers is contextual and maybe a bit geographic. I have friends who would speak like this when I lived in Kansai (particularly girls), but I never hear this in Okinawa. Also, I have never heard おいで used to mean "go", only "come". This stuck in my mind so I asked some friends, from Osaka, Okinawa and Aomori, and none of them imagine this to mean "go". Where does this idea come from?
    – zxq9
    Oct 21 '14 at 16:05
  • It's quite possible there are dialectical variations. Bullet two of @naruto's very thorough answer is the type of thing I was thinking of for "go" usages of it. Oct 21 '14 at 16:09
  • @DariusJahandarie Haha! Come to think of it, in actual use I've never heard the phonetic use of おいで to mean "go", but as a harsh imperative in the specific phrase 出ておけ I have (much more common to hear でていけ though). I never even thought of them as the same, actually, because nobody actually speaks this way, at least not in any place I have lived. Also, ナニナニしっておけ is not the same as ナニナニしておけ, I think. One feels like "come do __!" and the other sounds like "do __ and leave!".
    – zxq9
    Oct 21 '14 at 16:14

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