I've seen this in multiple combinations, but the one I was specifically looking at was:


...from 「宿命を背負いし者」.



Scouring through all my grammar books, I can't find this form of し explained. A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar (Seiichi Makino & Michio Tsutsui) lists し as a particle, roughly translated as 'and', or as an infix attached to an い-adj. In this context, the bit being modified by し is a verb, so would the infix work the same way? I doubt し is a shorthand for する, given that it's directly modifying the noun after it. Granted, I'm a beginner in Japanese.


1 Answer 1


「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (= attributive form) of the Clasical auxiliary verb 「き」, which expresses "past tense".

As in your examples, it is sometimes used in the Modern context when the author wants it to sound "literary" and/or "dramatic". Today, it is used almost exclusively in fiction.





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