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I'm asking mostly about verbs like 陥る / 落ち入る though I'd also be interested in nouns and adjectives.

I'm not really looking for synonyms, more words where the meaning and pronunciation are the same but the kanji changes. I know there are instances of this though I don't know what it's called and ideally I'd like some more examples.

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One convenient way to manage situations like this is to combine following pieces to convey your intention:

  • 同音【どうおん】 same reading (on- or kun-)
  • 同訓【どうくん】 same kun-reading
  • 異音【いおん】 different reading
  • 同義【どうぎ】 same meaning
  • 異義【いぎ】 different meaning
  • 類義【るいぎ】 similar meaning
  • 同字【どうじ】 same kanji
  • 異字【いじ】 different kanji

For example, there are 同音異義語, 同音異字語, 同字異音異義語, etc.

You can mix these freely, and at least make yourself understood in blog posts or Q&A forums like Y! Chiebukuro. But professional linguists may have better specific words or rules which I'm not aware of.

Your 陥る/落ち入る pair is 同音異字 which happens to be 同義, too.

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