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Dictionary definitions often use plus signs when describing what words or phrases are made of. For example, the definition for たところで…ない in 大辞泉 says:

《「たところで」は過去の助動詞「た」の連体形+名詞「ところ」+格助詞「で」。「ない」は打消しの助動詞、または形容詞》

I think the basic pronunciation of the plus sign in math is たす. But this isn't math, and I'm curious if people would pronounce it differently in this context.

For example, If I were reading this definition aloud, could I also say に instead of たす? I have a feeling that might be appropriate, but I'm not sure.

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I myself definitely would read it as 「プラス」 in that dictionary definition.

In math, at least I was taught to read it as 「たす」 in first-grade and continued to do so until I entered junior high school where I was required to read it as 「プラス」. Since then, I have been reading it that way except when talking to kids below junior high age (11 or 12).

I may or may not represent the nation on the matter, but I should not be far from the norm, either.

Regarding 「に」, I personally do not use that reading for 「+」, but that sure sounds like an educated guess on your part. It makes sense at least.

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