In which situations can I choose one of them to use?

  • 3
    It is good topic but why are you confused? (Can you add some examples where you think they are interchangeable / you can't see the difference?) – Tim Jul 26 '14 at 3:12
  • Thanks for your advice, Tim. I will pay attention to this in my next questions. :) – Thiên-Ân Nov 26 '14 at 10:39

According to a dictionary...

1. ならびに

ならびに ([接続]{せつぞく}): [二]{ふた}つの[事柄]{ことがら}を[結]{むす}び[付]{つ}けて,[並列]{へいれつ}の[関係]{かんけい}にあることを[表]{あらわ}す。および。また。

(From Daijirin Dictionary)


ならびに (Conj.): Used to express that two things are connected and linguistically parallel. Similar to および and また.

2. かつ

かつ ([副]{ふく}): 二つのことが[同時]{どうじ}にまたは[相前後]{あいぜんご}して[行]{おこな}われることを表す。

かつ (接続): 二つの[動作]{どうさ}・[状態]{じょうたい}が[並行]{へいこう}あるいは[添加]{てんか}して行われることを表す。

(From Daijirin Dictionary)


かつ (Adv.): Used to express that two thing are done concurrently or near time.

かつ (Conj.): Used to express that a thing fulfills two conditions.

My opinion

1. ならびに, および

ならびに and および are written language usually. And they are also used in polite and formal speech especially in a scene that someone speaks to audience. In ordinary talk, or それと can be used instead.

In most cases, ならびに can be replaced with および, また, and さらに.

Example (On a event in a school, the principal is speaking to audience):

(I would like to thank local residents and parents (of the students) for coming our school.)

above is equal to:

1. 地域の皆さん、および保護者の方におかれましては、ご足労頂きありがとうございます。
2. 地域の皆さん、また保護者の方におかれましては、ご足労頂きありがとうございます。
3. 地域の皆さん、さらに保護者の方におかれましては、ご足労頂きありがとうございます。

2. かつ

Daijirin says that かつ are used as both conjunction and adverb but I can't classify how it is used in many sentences. かつ can be used in ordinary, speak or polite language. The certain thing I know is that ならびに and かつ have different meanings.

Things and conditions connected with かつ are fulfilled at the same time.


(He laughed and danced.)

And also it's used in math / programming. If I want to pronounce A ∩ B = C (Set theory),

A かつ B [は]{wa} C

If I want to pronounce if(a == b && c == d) (C programming language),

1. もし a イコール b かつ c イコール d なら
2. もし a は b に[等]{ひと}しく、かつ c は d に[等]{ひと}しいなら


  • ならびに and および can be used when you want to write polite sentences.

  • ならびに and および can also be used when you speak to audience.

  • かつ can be used when you want to describe two conditions that are fulfilled at the same time.

  • Thanks for your explanations and examples. Very detailed. I think now I can use them more correctly. :) – Thiên-Ân Nov 26 '14 at 10:31

They all translate to and in English. But, in Japanese, they are translated differently depending on how it is used.


This is used when listing items. E.g. A, B, and C translates to A、BおよびC


This is used when listing items that contain a subset of items.

Let's say there are 3 groups A, B, and C. Also, let's say each group has another three items. If you want to list all of them, it would be A1,A2およびA3, B1,B2およびB3ならびにC1,C2およびC3.


There aren't any rules like those above. My impression is that かつ is used when you need some emphasis. For example, I get the impression that AかつB means A must be true, and B must also be true. On the other hand, AおよびB simply means A and B.

This also means and. This word can be used in both formal and informal context, but you probably don't often see it being used in legal documents. It is preferable to use および.

By the way, you may also come across または, もしくは, and あるいは. These all mean or in English. Just like the ones above, または is for flat lists, もしくは is for nested lists (but you use または to connect nested lists), and あるいは is neither and can be used in both context.

  • The down voter probably thought I made this up? Well, this is how the words are officially used (e.g. in legal documents), but most Japanese people often confuse them. – CookieMonster Oct 7 '14 at 8:24
  • Your answer inclines slightly to maths. But it's also helpful for me. Thank you. :) – Thiên-Ân Nov 26 '14 at 10:35

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