In my JLPT practise book, the following exchange between a man and a woman is part of a longer exchange in a listening section:



So, the woman first thanks the man for his efforts at the previous meeting. Then, if I understand correctly, the guy says that if they don't decide the staff for the next one, then it will have gone on long. The tenses don't add up.

I'm confused because he says 次{つぎ}, as if he's talking about the next meeting, but the sentence ends with the past tense, as if he was talking about a previous meeting.

Is the man talking about the next or previous meeting? And what exactly is he saying about it?

  • I tried to put together a speculative idea of what it could be for a commented answer, and I'm still having a bit of trouble. Screw it, this one's weird.
    – Kaji
    Commented May 28, 2014 at 3:48
  • Or rather at which they were failing to decide who will be the next 役員 and this made it take a lot of time.
    – virmaior
    Commented May 28, 2014 at 4:02

1 Answer 1


There are a couple issues here.

First off, the 次 here is about the next 役員 or board / committee member, not about the next meeting.

the next board member(s) が not decided
it [the meeting] took a really long time

So basically, the man is saying that the last meeting (that the woman mentions) took a really long time, because the meeting couldn't / didn't come to a decision about the next member(s).

There is no mention of the next meeting.

Secondly, Japanese doesn't really have grammatical tense in the same way that English does. (This part is more tangential to your question, so if your eyes glaze over reading this, no worries. :) ) Strictly speaking, grammatical tense is where verbs conjugate depending on the completedness of the action in relation to now. What Japanese has is more specifically grammatical aspect, where verbs conjugate depending on the completedness of the action in relation to the timeframe of the current context. (Read the Aspect vs. tense section for a comparison of the two.)

As such, it's grammatically possible to say things in Japanese like 昨日起きるところで "yesterday just before I wake up" (the context is yesterday, and the speaker, at the point being described, has not yet woken), or 明日あの本を読みきれた後で "tomorrow after I finished reading that book" (the context is tomorrow, and the speaker, at the point being described, will have finished reading). English doesn't work this way, so just translating word-for-word might get you confused. It took me a while to wrap my head around this difference.

  • 1
    Yes, but I think you can argue that the context is set by the matrix verb. In that sense, the conjugation on the matrix verb is a real tense, not an aspect. E.g. *昨日起きる。 is ungrammatical even if the waking up is taking place in the context of yesterday. It has to be 昨日起きた。, i.e. it is 起きた setting the context, not 昨日. I fully agree with you for non-matrix verbs.
    – dainichi
    Commented May 28, 2014 at 5:58
  • I don't have any good examples right to hand, but I recall years ago reading a novel and being puzzled by all these "present tense" verb sentences being used in a paragraph describing something in the past, and not in a dialogue or other context where that might be normal in English. My Japanese tutor at the time explained about aspect and how the overall context would decide the correct verb forms with respect to る vs. た. Commented May 28, 2014 at 6:38
  • 1
    @raruna, yes, this touches on aspect -- for 死ぬ, specifically, the verb has an aspect of instantaneous action, contrasting with English to die, which denotes more of a process. In English, I can say someone "is dying", to mean that they are in the process of becoming not-alive. In Japanese, 死んでいる means that they are いる-ing (being) in the state resulting from the completion of the instantaneous action of the verb 死ぬ (die) -- i.e. they "are dead". This construction holds true for all Japanese instantaneous-action verbs: the ~ている form usually indicates result, not ongoing action. Commented Jul 31, 2020 at 21:07
  • 1
    @raruna, see also this question and answer thread which discusses a different verb with the same kind of instantaneous aspect. In my own answer posted in that thread, I describe it as a "change of state" verb. I hope that helps. Commented Jul 31, 2020 at 21:14
  • 1
    @raruna, "learn the language more fully" is really all that comes to mind. I'm not trying to be snide or mean -- your question touches the heart of learning any language, that you need to get inside of it and become familiar with the nuances in order to use it effectively. There is no "rule" for adding nuance, you just get there over time by reading, listening, speaking, writing, and getting feedback. As I believe you're now discovering, understanding individual words is not enough. Ideally, go live in Japan for a while, really immerse yourself. (Once COVID is done, of course. 😄) Good luck! Commented Aug 1, 2020 at 0:29

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