So in short, you're looking for the variations of the question words and what they mean, put into logical groupings. Is that on the mark?
Formatting literal tables is a bit of a pain here, so I'll provide bulleted lists for each of the words here to explain in more details instead of using table rows. The form will be as follows:
base - meaning
- base + か - meaning
- base + も - meaning
- base + でも - meaning
For quick reference, the basic principle is that adding か is similar to the English prefix "some-", も is similar to the English "every-", and でも is similar to the English "any-". Whether it's positive or negative (e.g. "everyone" vs. "no one") is determined by the verb at the end of the sentence. These are general rules though, so skim the list below, as there are a couple of words that don't use some of these endings.
Unless otherwise noted, "the dictionary" will refer to the ウィズダム英和辞典 / ウィズダム和英辞典 when used below.
誰【だれ】 - who
- 誰【だれ】か - someone
- 誰【だれ】も - everyone
- 誰【だれ】でも - anyone
どなた - polite form of who
どなた does not appear to take any particles. See also どちら further down.
何【なに】 - what
- 何【なに】か - something
- 何【なに】も - everything
- 何【なん】でも - anything
The slightly less formal 何【なん】か is also in common use with the same meaning.
何【なに】 is also combined with a limited number of set words to create other interrogative words (e.g. 何者【なにもの】 who, 何故【なにゆえ】 why). I haven't found many examples documenting particles being added to these, but if they were to be added it would be after the full compound, not directly after 何【なに】.
どんな - what kind of
どんな does not appear to use any of the particles appended to the end.
いつ - when
- いつか - sometime
- いつも - every time, all the time
- いつでも - any time
どこ - where
- どこか - somewhere
- どこも - everywhere
- どこでも - anywhere
なぜ - why
- なぜか - for some reason (dictionary also suggests なんとなく, which I've personally heard more often)
なぜも and なぜでも don't exist.
なぜ can be written in kanji as 何故 (similar to 何故【なにゆえ】 above), however the kana form is far more prevalent.
なんで - why
なんで doesn't usually take additional particles (I imagine to reduce confusion with なんでも, for example), however I have seen なんででも used a few times to mean "for whatever reason".
どう - how
- どうか - somehow
- どうも - somehow
- どうでも - anyhow/however [it turns out]
The dictionary defines どうか and どうも as "somehow"; I'm not entirely clear on the specifics of when to use either.
どうして - how/by what means?
- どうしても - somehow
- どうしてでも - any way (may have seen this one once or twice, but it's comparatively rare. My usual dictionaries don't have it, but I did find it here.)
どうしてか doesn't exist. どうして is also sometimes translated as "why?".
いかが - how
I can't find any examples of いかが taking additional particles.
どの - which
I can't find any examples of particles being appended to どの. For meanings along those lines, see どれ below.
どれ - which one (of 3 or more choices)
- どれか - something (from among the options available)
- どれも - every one
- どれでも - any one
どちら - which one
どちら is an amazingly flexible word. Its uses include:
- which way?
- polite form of どの・どれ
- polite form of どこ
- polite form of 誰【だれ】
In the context of "which one", I've found examples using 〜も and 〜でも, as follows:
- どちらも - everything
- どちらでも - anything
どちらか does not appear to exist. That said, 〜も and 〜でも appear to be usable following the general principles outlined at the top of the post.
どちら can also be shortened to the informal どっち, which likewise is commonly used with 〜も and 〜でも without any major shifts in meaning.
いくら - how much
- いくらか - a little bit (少し【すこし】 is probably a more common alternative to this)
- いくらも - a lot of
- いくらでも - as much as one wants; unlimited
いくつ - how many
- いくつか - a few
- いくつも・いくつでも - as many as