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e.g. はなすこと and はなしかた I am trying to learn about this grammar point for a test enter image description here

My notes for できます and わかります enter image description here

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(1) こと nominalizes a verb, so はなすこと is "speaking".
(~が)できます means "can (do)~", so you can say:

はなすことができます。I can do + speaking → I can speak.
[日本語]{にほんご}をはなすことができます。I can do + speaking Japanese → I can speak Japanese.

Likewise,

かんじをよむことができます。I can read kanji.
すしをつくることができます。I can make sushi.


(2) かた is "way of ~"/"how to", so はなしかた is "way of speaking"/"how to speak".
(~が)わかります means "I know~"/"I understand~", so you can say:

はなしかたがわかります。I know + the way of speaking. → I know how to speak.
[日本語]{にほんご}のはなしかたがわかります。I know + the way of speaking + of Japanese → I know how to speak Japanese.

Likewise,

かんじのよみかたがわかります。I know how to read kanji.
すしのつくりかたがわかります。I know how to make sushi.

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