I have the following passage to translate.


Here is the bumbling way I translate it so far.

A long time ago, a lot more rivers and lakes etc, plants, animals, insects, and so on,
many natures were remaining. 

But, nature like this also from around 1960's industrialization ? pollution was
getting to be a problem.

For example, forest trees were cut, a lot of factories were built, golf courses were
used, and nature was getting to be destroyed.

Also because of this, we must think about if/how? we are going to protect ? Japanese

There are various things I do not understand in this passage.

  • Sentence 1 - mostly I don't get 多くの自然が. Many nature? Much of nature? Nothing really seems to fit.
  • Sentence 2 - I just don't understand the whole flow of the sentence. I think not understanding によって is one issue. Because of perhaps? And the "nature like this" I don't get. Etc etc.
  • Sentence 3 - I feel pretty confident about this one.
  • Sentence 4 - I think my main issues are not seeing the function of やって and not understanding how the and どう are used together.

Any hints would be much appreciated.

  • As it is, this question is several questions at once, and it is therefore being categorized as "posts to close due to being too broad". I would suggest that you break this question down into different posts, one for each of the constructions that are giving you trouble. – Eiríkr Útlendi Nov 17 '15 at 17:33

I think 自然 sometimes means 川や湖、植物、動物、虫. I still remember a sentence in a famous article: 空気と水、それに土などという自然があって.

It's interesting that both sentences explain 自然 by themselves.


によって here means “because of” or “by means of”.

In the second sentence, 自然 doesn't look like a subject in English otherwise there will be two subjects (自然 and 公害). You may think there is something like “regarding” or “concerning” before it. You may also think 自然 modifies 問題.

The pollution is getting to be a problem of Japanese nature because of the industrialization since 1960s.

これからも means “in the future”, “from now on”.

どうやって means “how” “in what way”, “by what means”.

ていく means something like “to go on doing” “to do continuously” or “forever”.

か marks the end of an embedded question. The whole question (これからも日本の自然をどうやって守っていく) functions like a noun, which serves as the object of 考える.

We have to think about how to protect Japanese nature forever from now on.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.