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I know that people often ask [兄弟]{きょうだい}いますか but does this mean "do you have siblings?" or just "do you have brothers?".

Since the answer would be different in either case:

(Has a sister) "No, but I have a sister" or would it be "Yes, I have a sister" (Has a brother) "Yes I do"

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When you say 兄弟いますか, it normally means "Do you have siblings?" (You'd say like お兄さんか弟(さん)いますか/いる? to mean "Do you have brothers?") I think 兄弟(は)いますか?/兄弟(は)いる(の)? will normally be responded with

はい、姉/兄/妹/弟が(X人)います。
うん、お姉ちゃん/お兄ちゃん/妹/弟が(X人)いるよ。
はい、姉と弟がいます。

etc...

You'll say "No" when you're the only child:

いいえ、一人っ子です。
ううん、一人っ子。

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  • What about 兄弟姉妹 for asking about siblings?
    – istrasci
    Jan 16, 2014 at 16:17
  • ..and what about 姉妹 for asking for sisters?
    – Earthliŋ
    Jan 16, 2014 at 17:07
  • I think 兄弟(か)姉妹はいますか is seen in formal situations or in the written style (eg. 相続, 法律関係...). When asking for sisters, I think you'd say like 「[女]{おんな}(の)[兄弟]{きょうだい}はいますか。」「お姉ちゃんか妹いる?」 in conversation.
    – user1016
    Jan 17, 2014 at 5:39
  • 2
    As a side note, I've seen きょうだい (in hiragana) used to refer to 兄と妹 in the newspaper. I've also seen [兄妹]{きょうだい} and [姉弟]{きょうだい} (probably in a novel? essay? or newspaper).
    – user1016
    Jan 17, 2014 at 5:44

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