Despite the "look" of the phrase, it is generally NOT a way to ask permission if said by a native speaker. It is a rhetorical question where the speaker is already giving herself (Isn't the speaker a woman?) permission as she utters the line.
It's a contraction of もらってしまってもいい(ですか). The しまう in there sort of indicates that the speaker is asking for it despite knowing that they might not be the intended recipient (though it doesn't necessarily imply the existence of any specific intended recipient).