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この仕事はあと一部を残すだけだ。
Only one part of the job remains.

Does one think of あと (remainder) as a noun (and object of 残す) and 一部 as a counter/adverb, or is あと the adverb and 一部 the noun here?

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To my ears あと sounds like an adverb - it's not 'one bit of remainder', it's 'one remaining bit'. あと is kind of in a weird place between noun and adverb, since a lot of the time it requires a particle, but a phrase like あとどれくらい may make this situation a bit more obvious - you can't quite do the same thing with a noun where あと is unless you use a particle (so 女は何人いる, not *女何人いる).

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