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Is there any difference in meaning between the words じょうご and ろうと, both meaning something like "funnel", both written with the kanji 漏斗?

There's some indication in the answers here that ろうと may be a specific term used when you're talking about scientific experiments, but no such distinction in the dictionaries I have access to.

How about in compounds? For example, 漏斗雲{ろうとうん} - is it always ろうと in these cases?

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In typical everyday usage, the two words are fundamentally the same. However, distinctions can be made between them.

  • zyougo: from 上戸 (a person who enjoys liquor), it expresses how liquids are sucked in without spilling like a funnel. The meaning is more abstract and includes funnel-like objects as well.

  • routo: (non-abstract) specifically a funnel; this is the preferred terminology in science experiments.

How about in compounds?

I would expect it to be routo-. From the above explanation, zyougo is merely atezi for 上戸, so this limits the likely hood of compounds with the same reading. Also, compounds typically narrow a meaning to something more specific, while zyougo is already an abstract noun compared to the more specific routo.

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