To me, once of the most important parts of learning a language is the ability to read the implied message behind someone's words, and part of that is knowing when they're making a point and they're just shooting the breeze and explaining things. I know of a few, like から and ので, but does anyone have insight to offer, in this respect?
I guess these might fit your description they are phrases you would say when arguing.
それで - and that's why... だったら - If that's the case then... かと言って - but even so... 強いて言えば - If I had to say... となると - If that's the case then... それにしても - Even so... いずれにしても - In any case... というわけで - In conclusion...
I know that these don't necessarily follow a general pattern, so it's worth mentioning a few more:
- つまるところ・つまり - In other words/to sum up
- 要するに・と - basically/what you're trying to say is
- 必ずしも〜というわけではない - It is not necessarily the case that ~
- どちらにせ・何にしろ and all of the equivalent phrasings - Either way
- あえて言えば - One could go so far as to say...