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A guy calls someone and there was no response and he said「僕の電話も出ない」. I am confused about the meaning of も. Based on Google search, phrases 電話を出る and 電話が出る are nonsense but 電話に出る makes sense. So it seems like 僕の電話も出ない can be rephrased as「(向こうが)僕の電話にも出ない」. Is that right?

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    Yes, the に is being omitted. Commented Jun 20 at 23:02

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Yes, it's a colloquial variant of 僕の電話にも出ない, where this も means either "also" or "even" depending on the context. Canonically speaking, you can replace が and を with も, but you have to append も after に, へ, と, から, etc. However, にも is sometimes turns to も in conversational Japanese, for example:

  • 東京も行った。
    I went to Tokyo, too.
  • 僕はそれも困っています。
    I'm annoyed by it, too.
  • 私も夢があります。
    I also have a dream.
  • 何の役も立たない。
    It's completely useless.

There may be subtle limitations or rules that I'm not aware of, but this explains at least your sentence. You should avoid this in written or formal Japanese.

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  • Thanks as always! I think this phenomenon also applies to には right?
    – weeab00
    Commented Jun 21 at 3:31
  • @weeab00 Yes, you can say 東京は行った, etc.
    – naruto
    Commented Jun 22 at 1:11

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