I cant find the answer because everywhere its different. I always have problem with ある and いる because sometimes you cant use it with some grammar. I would be very grateful if someone could explain this. Thank You

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    What do you mean by "つもり form"? Commented Jun 16 at 15:09
  • I mean for example 書くつもりです、するつもりです
    – Oli Oli
    Commented Jun 16 at 16:43
  • I think we call that the "dictionary form". ある and いる already are in the dictionary form. Commented Jun 16 at 19:23
  • @GuiImamura He probably asks if it is natural to use 「…あるつもりだ。」, 「…いるつもりだ。」.
    – Arfrever
    Commented Jun 16 at 20:25

1 Answer 1


Volitional for ある is あろう and for いる is いよう。

  • Could you specify which exactly functions あろう and いよう can have (e.g. from this list)? I think that I have read somewhere that this sufffix when used with existential verbs (e.g. ある, いる) can only mean conjecture (推測) "probably is / exists / has", and not intention ("wants to be / exist / have") or suggestion ("let's be / exist / have").
    – Arfrever
    Commented Jun 16 at 20:21
  • The list you posted sugests that this よう is an auxiliary verb, which is something I've never thought about before, and I'm not sure if I wanna agree with, since it works with some verbs but not others (e.g. it works with いる and あげる but not with ある or やる), and I've always seen it as part of verb conjugation. If you try any decent auto-conjugator (i.e. like this) you'll see it's part of the verb itself, not an auxiliary verb. Commented Jun 17 at 8:30
  • @Arfrever Anyway yes, the only valid use of volitional あろう that comes to my mind is after the で particle, and both あろう and いよう after で has the "let's be (something/someway)" meaning. However, いよう also works without a preceding で and can mean "let's stay" (as in このままでいよう), or can be used as an auxiliary verb, as in 笑っていよう which translates to " let's be smiling" (to which you can add a ずっと = "for ever", for example). Commented Jun 17 at 8:42
  • I just realized that this よう is the volitional conjugation for all ichidan-verbs, while godan-verbs have another rule for conjugating. Which is why it works for いる and あげる but not for ある and やる, and further leads me to the conclusion that it is NOT an auxiliary verb Commented Jun 17 at 8:52
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    E.g. for verb kaku: modern kakō comes, through some intermediate forms, from Old Japanese kakamu. There were several forms ending with -u: kaku, kakanu (negative), kakamu (conjectural), kakyemu (past conjectural), kakayu (passive), kakaru (passive) etc. Western linguists consider that that final -u is actually suffix of conclusive/terminal (終止形), and that some part before -u is another suffix. E.g. negative form kakanu is segmented as kak- + -an- + -u, and -an- is the suffix giving negative meaning to that form. Similarly for kakamu = kak- + -am- + -u.
    – Arfrever
    Commented Jun 18 at 1:21

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