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お金に困りました。When I came across this sentence, I read the に as by as in troubled with/by money. Is it correct.

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困る is a simple intransitive verb, and your sentence has no passive construction. Its meaning is often explained using the passive voice in English (for example, "to be annoyed"), but this does not mean 困りました is passive.

に has many functions, and in your case, it's a type of に that marks the cause of a psychological reaction. Such に can appear non-passive sentences. See this question for similar examples: に in コントロールに苦しまなくなった

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