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This is a mini dialogue

A セミの声って、人によっては、うるさく感じるらしいね。 

B そうかもしれないね。それにしても、8月になった途端、急にセミがなきはじめたね。

Assuming that both are translatable as 'As Soon As'. I understood た途端 was used when there was something sudden, something unpredictable while 次第 was used when there was something that you expect or was not sudden. So why is た途端 used here? Isn't the fact that in August the cyclicals start making noise a common occurrence and therefore somewhat predictable?

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次第 would be weird in this sentence. [V ます-stem]-次第 is used, usually in the non-past tense, to talk about something you will do upon the completion of some event.

(私は)仕事が終わり次第、帰る。

The focus of this sentence is on the completion of work being a necessary condition for the action of the main clause.

[V た-form]-途端 has its focus on the action of the main clause happening immediately following the completion of some event and is often used in the past tense to talk about something you discovered.

(彼は)仕事が終わった途端、帰った。

There may be a little element of surprise or unexpectedness to it, but I wouldn't say it's a necessary part of the construct.

[V た-form]-ら with some adverb like すぐ works for both.

仕事が終わったら、すぐ帰る。

仕事が終わったら、すぐ帰った。

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