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From "Granblue Fantasy: Relink" (where the English subs takes extreme liberties).

For context: A-kun works with Villain-san against MC-kun's party. But after seeing all the bad shit, A-kun has a change of heart and starts working with MC-kun. When A-kun+MC's party confront Villain-san, Villain-san says "[A-kun]、まさか絆{ほだ}されたと?", which is translated as "[A-kun]...is this betrayal?"

But when I look up "絆{ほだ}す", it apparently means to bind or shackle. How does that imply that A-kun is betraying Villain-san? For the record, there's no indication that anyone believes A-kun is being "shackled" by MC-kun's party. It's completely clear to everyone that he's acting upon his own free will to work with MC-kun's party against Villain-san.

If you want to see the line in context (warning, Granblue Fantasy Relink final battle spoilers): https://youtu.be/H2HM6hlsN2I?t=2255

Edit: apparently 絆{ほだ}される has a special extra definition beyond being a passive version of 絆{ほだ}す. It apparently can mean "to be moved by, be touched by, be overcome by". So my guess is that Villain-san was roughly saying "to think you were moved by MC-kun's party...", which does indeed make sense with the context of the story. But my question still stands: why is there such a disconnect between the verb 絆す and its passive form 絆される? Or is it just something that one must accept?

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As you notice, it is often used in the passive 絆される meaning to be moved/touched. You can see it in dictionary entries.

Since the passive usage is far more common, I think you can just remember it as to be moved etc, but note 大辞泉 (the first link) says:

1 情に引きつけられて、心や行動の自由が縛られる。「けなげな気持ちに—・れる」

So, it is the passive of to bind = to be bound and the agent (binder) is always the implicit emotion or empathy.

As you can see in the examples of the second link, it is usually used in the context where reason and emotion conflicts in a way; the subject does (not do) something against their reason due to the emotion.

Just taking one example,

子供への愛情にほだされて彼女は離婚に踏み切れなかった
Because of her love for her children, she was unable to seek a divorce.

This suggests 彼女 wants to divorce by reason, but bound by considerations for her child(ren), she was unable to do it.

Similarly in your sentence, the A-kun did something (he is not supposed to do) because of his(?) feeling for MC.

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