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サービスはフルコースだから、時間が足りないくらいだけど

What is the function of this “〜くらい” here? Is it similar to “〜だけ” in the same place and does the sentence mean “There just isn't enough time though.” or is there something else going on?

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No, this くらい is not "just", but it's used to mark 時間が足りない is an extreme description. Roughly speaking, it adds a sense of "this much". Depending on how it's connected to the rest of the context, this type of くらい can be translated in several ways:

  1. "to the point where A", "enough to A", "so ~ that A":

    • それは目に見えるくらい大きい。
      It's large enough to be visible to the eye.
    • 彼女は倒れそうになるくらい頑張った。
      She worked so hard that she almost collapsed.
    • Postpositional or prepositional くらい
  2. "Given A, ...", "It's even A (so it should be B)"

  3. "It's even A (so what's been said is not true)", "rather", "if anything"

    • 悲しくありません、むしろ嬉しいくらいです。
      I'm not sad. Rather, I'm almost happy.
    • いや興味ありますよ! 今すぐにでも行きたいくらい!
      Wait, I am interested! I'd even like to go right now!
    • サービスはフルコースだから、時間が足りないくらいだ。
      (It's not long.) Since it's a full-course service, if anything, there's not enough time.

The sentence in question is preceded by a context where someone is worried about spending a long time at a restaurant, right? Here, くらい is used to negate that concern, adding a sense of "rather" to the statement.

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